At the beginning of the second millennium the lands where Kaluga is located
now, were part of Chernigov Principality. Gradually they were shifted under
the protection of the Vladimir-Suzdal principality, where Moscow began to play
a major role. Walled cities quickly appeared in XII—XIII centuries. In XIV-
early XV centuries a fortress was built on the river Yachenka, historically
it is known as Simeon Fort.
It is considered that the first reference to Kaluga dates in manuscripts is
the complaint, dated August 1371, sent by the Lithuanian Prince Olgerd to Philopheus,
the Patriarch of Constantinople.
Shopping and entertainment center Torgovyy kvartal
The largest in Kaluga shopping mail, SEC Torgovy Kvartat is the center of
family leisure and entertainments not only for the city dwellers, but also for
the residents of nearby towns and villages. The malt owner is working on its
transforma¬tion into the biggest and most popular shopping center in the region.
Today Torgovy Kvartat accommodates the largest in Kaluga retail gallery with
the most remarkable mix of best national and international operators — foodstuffs,
footwear, clothing, accessories and restaurants. Operating here is the city's
only Sportmaster Hyper and the unique children's fun center Happy Land with
a kids' creativity room, playroom and a multitude of family attractions. On
weekends and holidays people of Kaluga come to the shopping mall to plunge into
a festive atmosphere, to have a good time there and indulge in recreational
and leisure activities. Opening soon in SEC Torgovy Kvartat is a seven-screen
movie theatre and a large zone of family leisure; during the next several years
this center's gross built area will reach 90,000 sq.m