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Kremlin of Moscow

Moscow> Kremlin of Moscow

Kremlin of Moscow

Moscow has been called the Third Rome", white-stoned, golden-domed, the original capital. Its past both impresses and amazes, especially today when we are candidly evaluating our his-tory and correcting our mistakes, and the city, preserving its unique centuries-old features,is rapidly changing for the better. It is no accident that Moscow - the capital of the RussianFederation and one of the worlds major cities - is attracting more and more tourists.To begin to get know this city, you have to, of course, start with the Kremlin and Red Square.

The Kremlin is a unique place, both a protected museum district and the acting residence of theRussian president. Even today many foreign tourists are surprised to learn that Red Squaredid not get its name during the socialist period, but much earlier, since the word red in OldRussian (Krasny) meant beautiful or main, and also because of the color of the Kremlinwalls and towers. And the square justifies its name. It is no accident that the Moscow Kremlin architectural ensemble has been included on the UNESCO World Heritage List.Historians and archaeologists are still arguing about how old Moscow is. The earliest authoritativerecollection is a reference in the Ipatyev Chronicle in April 1147 when Prince Yury Dolgorukyreceived his friends and associates in a small town called Moscow. In 1156, the first woodenfortifications appeared here, and in the 14th century, they were turned into walls made ofwhite stone. It is since that time that the term white-stoned became firmly establishedas a description for Moscow. When the walls were deteriorated a century later, they werereplaced by new ones made of red brick.

At the end of the 15th century, the Kremlin wasreconstructed with the help of Italian architects, thanks to whom came up the magnificentarchitectural ensemble combining the traditions of Russian and Renaissance architects.The center of the Kremlin is Cathedral Square (Sobornaya Ploshchad), which contains the Cathe-dral of the Dormition (Uspensky Sobor), the Cathedral of the Annunciation (Blagoveschen-sky Sobor) and the Cathedral of the Archangel (Arkhangelsky Sobor), as well as the Palaceof Facets and the Ivan the Great Bell Tower. Important historical events are associated withCathedral Square: The coronation of Russian tsars and emperors took place in the Cathedralof the Dormition, the Cathedral of the Archangel was used as their burial vault, and the Palace of Facets was used to receive foreign ambassadors and hold state meetings.

Red Squares crown jewel is the Cathedral of the Protection of the Most Holy Theotokos on theMoat, built in the 16th century, which later became better known as St. Basils Cathedral, afterthe name of the well-known holy fool, clairvoyant and healer who collected funds to build thecathedral. Despite its chaotic-looking exterior.

To the left standsthe building of Manege accommodating the Central Exibition Hall nowadays, to the right are the Kremlinticket offices.

It symbolizes the embodiment of the idea of theThird Rome and is the emblem of the biblical New Jerusalem - the Kingdom of God.From the 17th to the 19th century, many secular buildings wdhe constructed within the Kremlinsboundaries. During the 17th century, the Teremnoi Palace appeared, and the Kremlin towerswere crowned with multitiered tent-roofs. The

Kremlin Arsenal and Kremlin Senate werebuilt in the 18th century, and in the 19th - the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin Armory.And next to the Kremlin walls, the Alexander Gardens covered the site of a disused ancientunderground moat.The Soviet authorities made adjustments to the ancient appearance of the Kremlin. In 1918, theSoviet government, headed by Lenin, moved into the Kremlin: Government officials workedand lived there with their families. Red Square took on a new, ceremonial significance. A ne-cropolis, where for a long time political and military leaders would be buried, appeared nextto the Kremlin walls.Since 1918, Red Square has been the main venue for parades and demonstrations. This was wherethe parade of Nov. 7, 1941, took place, when the participants left the square to go to thefront, and also the Victory parade of June 24, 1945. In 1924, Lenins wooden mausoleumwas erected. Six years later, it was transformed into marble. During the 1930s, many of theKremlin's cathedrals and churches were destroyed for ideological reasons. In 1935-1937, thedouble-headed eagles on the five Kremlin towers were replaced by five-pointed stars firstmade of Uralian semiprecious stones and then - of ruby-red glass.

The Kremlin was not opento the general public until 1955. In 1961, the Palace of Congresses was built next to the Trin-ity Gate its spacious conference hall served as the site for the sessions of the communistparty of the Soviet Union and for international conferences and forums. Today, it is called theState Kremlin Palace and is one of the countrys most prestigious theater and concert venues.By the beginning of the current century, the historical magnificence of the Grand Kremlin Palacesinterior came back: Alexandrovsky (St. Alexanders) Hall and Andreyevsky (St. Andrews) Hallwere restored, and Georgievsky (St. Georges) Hall, the grandest one, was completely restored.

Every hour a clock chimes in Red Square - its the clock on the Spasskaya, or Savior, Tower. Inancient times, the Savior Gate was considered the most important and holy. No one was al-lowed to go through them on horseback, and men passing through them had to take off theirhats in front of the image of the Savior depicted on the outside of the tower. In 2010, an eventtook place that many people considered to be a miracle.

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