Azerbaijan > History
History of Azerbaijan
The favorable geographical position of the country, the rich nature, resources,
nice climate always made Azerbaijan the country attractive not only for peaceful
settlers. It also served as bait for the aggressive purposes of various tribes,
peoples and empires like - Roman, Byzantine, Parthian, Arabian Caliphate, Great
Orda of Chingis khan, the empire of Tamerlan, the Iranian empires, Osmanli Turk
and Russian empires.
Each plot of land in Azerbaijan conceals numerous archeological evidence of
that people had already lived here in prehistoric or ancient time. The climate,
abundance of water resources served to the most ancient people that inhabited
the area more than one million years ago (scientific materials on research of
Azikh and Taglar caves).
Sometimes native people were escaping from various invaders and conflicts
high in the mountains, where their shelters developed as separate rare settlements
with isolated ethnic groups holding on their original way of life, sometimes
keeping unique, unknown to modern science language till (villages. Khinalig,
Budug, Griz ). The agriculture and cattle breeding started by the late Neolithic
or early chalcolithic period alongside with the primitive building and pottery.
Then the archaic painted ceramics and schematic petroglythes (scientific materials
on Gobustan, Gemigaya, Shakhtahti, Shomutepe, Alikepektepe, Kyultepe) had appeared.
During the epoch of bronze (3-1 millenniums BC) the crafts connected to processing
of metal (weapon) had appeared; products from bone, textiles, and painted ceramics
Connections with the peoples of Asia Minor and Near East (scientific materials
on the Kur-Araz culture that were discovered in many places of modern Azerbaijan)
Then there appeared the first big tribal unions, that were mentioned in various,
9 them because of natural pressure and abundance. When Azerbaijan was included
in the Russian Empire, Baku became the center of the province in 1859 with the
average oil extraction of 200000- 300 000 poods or about 18000 tons per year.